United Nations

Topics: United Nations, United Nations Security Council, Peacekeeping Pages: 7 (1797 words) Published: May 22, 2014
Here's everything what you need to know about United Nations
INTRODUCTION

The United Nations (UN) is an INTERGOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATION established on 24 October 1945 to promote international co-operation. A replacement for the ineffective LEAGUE OF NATIONS, the organization was created following the ECOND WORLD WAR to prevent another such conflict. At its founding, the UN had 51 member states; there are now 193. The UN Headquarters is situated in MANHATTAN, New York City and enjoys extraterritoriality. Further main offices are situated in Geneva, Nairobi and Vienna. The organization is financed by assessed and voluntary contributions from its member states. Its objectives include maintaining international peace and security, promoting human rights, fostering social and economic development, protecting the environment, and providing humanitarian aid in cases of famine, natural disaster, and armed conflict.

HISTORY

BACKGROUND AND CREATION

In the century prior to the UN's creation, several international treaty organizations and conferences had been formed to regulate conflicts between nations, such as the INTERNATIONAL COMMITTEE OF RED CROSS and the HAGUE CONVENTIONS OF 1899 and 1907.Following the catastrophic loss of life in the First World War, the PARIS PEACE CONFERENCE established the League of Nations to maintain harmony between countries.This organization resolved some territorial disputes and created international structures for areas such as postal mail, aviation, and opium control, some of which would later be absorbed into the UN.However, the League lacked representation for colonial peoples (then half the world's population) and significant participation from several major powers, including the US, USSR, Germany, and Japan; it failed to act against the Japanese invasion of Manchuria in 1931, the Second Italo-Ethiopian War in 1935, the Japanese invasion of China in 1937, and German expansions under ADOLF HITLER that culminated in the SECOND WORLD WAR.

The first meetings of the General Assembly, with 51 nations represented,and the Security Council took place in Methodist Central Hall Westminster in London beginning 6 January 1946.The General Assembly selected New York City as the site for United Nations Headquarters, and the facility was completed in 1952. Its site—like UN headquarters buildings in Geneva, Vienna, and Nairobi—is designated as international territory.The Norwegian Foreign Minister, Trygve Lie, was elected as the first UN Secretary-General.
COLD WAR ERA

Though the UN's primary mandate was PEACEKEEPING, the division between the US and USSR often paralysed the organization, generally allowing it to intervene only in conflicts distant from the COLD WAR.(A notable exception was a Security Council resolution in 1950 authorizing a US-led coalition to repel the NORTH KOREAN INVASION OF SOUTH KOREA, passed in the absence of the USSR.)In 1947, the General Assembly approved a resolution to partition Palestine, approving the creation of the state of Israel. Two years later, Ralph Bunche, a UN official, negotiated an armistice to the resulting conflict.In 1956, THE FIRST UN PEACEKEEPING FORCE was established to end the Suez Crisis;however, the UN was unable to intervene against the USSR's simultaneous invasion of Hungary following that country's revolution.

STRUCTURE

The United Nations' system is based on five principal organs: the General Assembly, the Security Council, the Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC), the Secretariat, and the International Court of Justice.A sixth principal organ, the Trusteeship Council,...
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