IT IS THE TIME FOR THE REFORM IN THE UN
Reform of the United Nations (UN) is a hotly debated issue nowadays in the UN. Among those so many academicians and politicians, maybe the loudest voice comes from Prime Minister of the Republic of Turkey Recep Tayyip Erdoğan, demand for reform in the structure of the UN because of the ineffectiveness of the UN on certain issues, including humanitarian intervention in some countries or dealing with the issues related with economic crises, climate change and others. This paper claims that UN’s reform is necessary in order to enhance the UN’s global effectiveness as a multilateral organization and strengthen its credibility. However, there are some different points of views. According to Idealist view, it is a great opportunity for change and improvement. On the other side from the realist perspective, permanent five members (P-5) of the United Nations Security Council (UNSC) members are further likely to slow down the reform process considering that this process does not fit with their interests. In this state of affairs, the UN, especially the UNSC, has some stalemates with the issues that concern whole humanity and major part of the world is of the opinion that UN should be reformed and this should not take so much time. In this paper I would like to talk about the UN system in today’s world, it is effectiveness and some arguments on the UN reform process. 2. Why the UN needs a reform?
The UN was founded in 1945 after the World War II to replace the League of Nations, to stop wars between countries, and to provide a platform for dialogue. It contains multiple subsidiary organizations to carry out its missions. The UN consists of some organs, but most important bodies of it are the General Assembly (GA) and the UNSC. The GA is the primary organ of the UN and all 193 member states have equal representations. The other, maybe the most controversial, organ is the UNSC. According to the UN’s Charter, the UNSC is the main executive organ of the UN and its primary responsibility is maintaining international peace and security (UN Charter, Article 24). The UNSC is the most powerful organ of the UN, as it may adopt binding resolutions for all member states. The P-5 (The USA, The UK, France, China and Russia) are the founder states of the UN, which are victor powers of the WW2. Even though 67 years have passed since the foundation of the UN this structure, which represents world politics of the 1945, still continues. However, the world in the 21st century is very different from the world of 1945s. According to Taylor and Curtis, current structure of the UN neither reflects distribution of military and economic power, nor a geographical balance of the today’s world order. Many of the structures and processes of the UN denote an old era. Changes in the world order that have happened in the last 67 years must be taken into consideration. Primarily, the number of member countries of the UN has reached from 51 to 193. Subsequently, the world has become a small village by the globalization and this led to emergence of newly emerged problems that the world of 1940s could not estimate and needs to take immediate actions against them. According to Weiss, the veto privilege granted to the P5 can disable any attempt to reform the body of UNSC, since they would not want to lose their relative power in international politics. Problems underlay the today’s UN system, especially the structure of the Security Council which is in favor of the P-5 against other 188 member states. However, Luck states that even though there is a rapid growth during the decolonization process and increasing pressures for the UNSC expansion, strong cases for permanent membership of major member states powers, such as Japan and Germany and in parallel with some of the developing countries like India, Brazil, South Africa or Turkey have not accomplished this gain so far. After the US intervention in Iraq in...
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