International Collage Social Science Division International Organization ICOS 273 Supervisor: Dr. Mike Hayes
UNITED NATIONS PEACEKEEPING
Somalia, Rwanda and Yugoslavia
Essay written by Sarah Kaiser ID: 5580306 23th November 2012
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1. INTRODUCTION __________________________________________________ 3
2. SOMALIA _______________________________________________________ 3 2.1. BACKGROUND __________________________________________________ 3 2.2. ACTION TAKEN BY THE UN ________________________________________ 3 2.2.1. UNOSOM I __________________________________________________ 3 2.2.2. UNITAF _____________________________________________________ 3 2.2.3. UNISOM II___________________________________________________ 4 2.3. OUTCOME OF THE PEACEKEEPING ___________________________________ 4 3. RWANDA _______________________________________________________ 4 3.1. BACKGROUND __________________________________________________ 4 3.2. ACTION TAKEN BY THE UN ________________________________________ 4 3.2.1. UNAMIR ____________________________________________________ 4 3.3. OUTCOME OF THE PEACEKEEPING ___________________________________ 5 4. YUGOSLAVIA____________________________________________________ 5 4.1. BACKGROUND __________________________________________________ 5 4.2. ACTION TAKEN BY THE UN ________________________________________ 5 4.2.1. UNPROFOR _________________________________________________ 5 4.3. OUTCOME OF THE PEACEKEEPING ___________________________________ 6 5. 6. REASONS FOR FAILURE & RECOMMENDATIONS ________________________ 6 IMPROVEMENT OF UN PEACEKEEPING ACTIVITIES _____________________ 7
BIBLIOGRAPHY _______________________________________________________ 8
UNITED NATIONS PEACEKEEPING
Peacekeeping has witnessed significant growth since the 1990 have evolved to become a cornerstone of the international community’s response to in international crises. It helps courtiers torn by conflicts create conditions for sustainable peace. Peacekeeping began with a primarily military model of observing ceasefires and separating combatants after inter-state wars. Today peacekeeping has evolved and expanded into an intergraded system of many elements military, police and civilian personnel, working together to build peace in the dangerous aftermath of conflict (Parliamentary Hearing at the UN 2008). Peacekeeping missions deploy where others cannot or will not and play a vital role in providing a bridge to stability and eventual long-term peace and development.
Following the downfall of President Siad Barre in 1991, a civil war broke out in Somalia between the faction supporting Interim President Ali Mahdi Mohamed and that supporting General Mohamed Farah Aidid. The United Nations, in cooperation with the Organization of African Unity and other organizations, sought to resolve the conflict. The Secretary-General in 1991 dispatched an envoy to which all faction leaders expressed support for a United Nations peace role. The United Nations also became engaged in providing humanitarian aid, in cooperation with relief organizations. The war had resulted in nearly 1million refugees and almost 5 million people threatened by hunger and disease.
2.2. ACTION TAKEN BY THE UN
The Somalia Intervention can be sprit into three phases:
2.2.1. UNOSOM I
Duration Strength Fatalities Expenditure April 1992 - March 1993 50 military observers, 3,500 security personnel and up to 719 military support personnel, supported by international civilian and local staff 6 military personnel $42.9 million net
Established in April 1992 by Resolution 751, UNOSOM I was initially composed of 50 ceasefire monitors to implement ‘protection and security for United Nations personnel, equipment and supplies at the seaports and airports in Moqdishu and escort deliveries of...
Bibliography: Crocker C. A., June 1995. The Lessons of Somalia http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/50967/chester-a-crocker/the-lessons-of-somalia-not-everything-wentwrong (Accessed 6th December 2012) Histori Homepage, Date Unknown. Peacekeeping in Rwanda Available online at: http://www.histori.ca/peace/page.do?pageID=339 (Accessed 6th December 2012) History Homepage, Date Unknown. Bosnian Genocide Available online at: http://www.history.com/topics/bosnian-genocide (Accessed 6th December 2012) Lijn J. v. d., Date Unknown. UN Peacekeeping Operations. http://www.stanford.edu/class/e297a/United%20Nations%20Peacekeeping%20Operations.pdf (Accessed 6th December 2012) Parliamentary Hearing at the UN. November 2008. New York. UN Peacekeeping: The Challenges Ahead Available online at: http://www.ipu.org/splz-e/unga08/s4.pdf (Accessed 6th December 2012) pkops Homepage, Date Unknown. UN Mission Available online at: http://www.pkops.net/ops/unprofor.htm (Accessed 6th December 2012) Sheridan M., November 1993. UN: Whats gone wrong? – Failure in Yugoslavia http://www.independent.co.uk/voices/united-nations-whats-gone-wrong--the-high-cost-of-peacekeepingfailure-in-yugoslavia-1501437.html (Accessed 6th December 2012) United Nations Homepage 1, Date Unknown. Somalia – UNOSOM1 Available online at: http://www.un.org/en/peacekeeping/missions/past/unsom1backgr1.html (Accessed 6th December 2012) United Nations Homepage 2, Date Unknown. Somalia – UNOSOM2 Available online at: http://www.un.org/Depts/DPKO/Missions/unosom2b.htm (Accessed 6th December 2012) United Nations Homepage 3, Date Unknown. Rwanda - UNAMIR Available online at: http://www.un.org/en/peacekeeping/missions/past/unamirF.htm (Accessed 6th December 2012) United Nations Homepage 4, Date Unknown. Former Yugoslavia - UNPROFOR Available online at: http://www.un.org/en/peacekeeping/missions/past/unprof_p.htm (Accessed 6th December 2012) Wikipedia Homepage, Date Unknown. United Nations Assistance Mission for Rwanda Available online at: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_Nations_Assistance_Mission_for_Rwanda (Accessed 6th December 2012)
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