The education system of the Republic of Kazakhstan
Education as a system - a unique social institution designed to develop the abilities of the individual; socially important ideals, fashions the future of society, to meet the needs of people in education throughout life (continuing education), as well as to meet society's need for social adaptation of young people to use their skills for economic development. President, NA Nazarbayev to the strategic directions of development of the republic in the coming decade include education and science, the development of which crucially depend on the pace of economic, technical and technological progress, political development, the state of culture and spirituality in society. During the years of reforms undertaken bold steps to introduce innovations. So, with the adoption in June 1999. Law "On education" has a new model of the national education system, corresponding to the International Standard Classification of Education, recommended by UNESCO. In accordance with it, based on the principle of continuity and has 4 levels of education: - Pre-school education and training.
- Secondary education.
- Higher Education.
- Post-graduate education.
In this model, there is no such levels, as vocational and secondary education. Training and retraining of personnel, it also is not education levels, and are considered as basic forms of additional professional education. The education system WSO in the last 10 years has undergone significant changes. In the late 90's have been reducing the share of the actual level of funding, the closing (the "optimization"), a number of educational institutions, the crisis in the system as a whole. Currently, the system of education has entered a period of stabilization, which is characterized by extensive development of innovative processes in the content, organization and management of education that brought some positive results. Modern trends of development of Kazakhstan created the need for and problems of education at the level of each region. In the decision of the Mayor adopted a program of education development EKR the period 2001 - 2005. Which is designed to provide organizational and substantive unity, continuity and interconnectedness of all levels in the education field taking into account the social structure of the region, its traditions, ethnic and economic features. Financing of the activities of the program is planned to be within budget and providing paid educational services. The nominal minimum requirement for its implementation to date is 38.8 billion.
Education of preschool children is essential for the formation of communication skills, language development, physical development and school readiness. Dynamics of the major indicators of children's preschool education system, shows a significant reduction in the network of kindergartens, and, consequently, enrollment in preschool education. This was a consequence of folding the base objects of social and domestic companies in the region, and reducing funding for state educational institutions. The number and rate of decline of kindergartens in the area over the past 10 years, characterized by the following data: As can be seen from the diagram, the peak of "optimization" of preschool institutions has fallen to 1995-1997. For 10 years the number of kindergartens declined at 12.5 times the number of seats in them - in 5.4 times. In the villages, this process occurs more rapidly. If the cities and towns the number of kindergartens declined to 6.7 times that in rural areas - 60 times. In 1990, rural kindergartens accounted for 52% of their total number in 2000 - 11%. Despite such a sharp decline in pre-school institutions, filling the available places is 92%, and it's not so much a demographic factor, as indicator of availability of services for preschool populations. The cost of visiting a kindergarten child per month from 1 to 2 times the...
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