SA IBL TB8e Ch20

Topics: United Nations, Environmental protection, Environmental law Pages: 8 (2387 words) Published: July 21, 2015
CHAPTER 20—ENVIRONMENTAL LAW

TRUE/FALSE

1.Investors in developing countries face minimal risk that environmental standards in those countries will become stricter over time.

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2.The real purpose of U.S. corporate average fuel economy standards was to make it difficult for Japanese luxury cars to compete in the U.S. market.

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3.The GATT allows member nations to impose tariffs on imported products that are not "sustainably" produced (that is, that are produced in ways that cause harm to the environment).

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4.Under principles of customary international law, no state has the right to use or to permit the use of its territory in a manner causing serious consequences or injury if the injury can be demonstrated by clear and convincing evidence.

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5.Many foreign nations attract investment because of their less demanding labor and environmental laws.

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6.The central problem in environmental law lies in determining which activities alter the environment to an unacceptable extent.

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7.Conservationists have sought international environmental legal relief through dispute resolution, import bans, and multilateral treaties.

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8.One dispute resolution mechanism used frequently in international disputes over the environment is binding adjudication.

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9.Environmental issues are generally limited to cross-border pollution.

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10.One example of a global solution to a global environmental problem is a multilateral agreement concerning depletion of the ozone layer and the production of chlorofluorocarbons.

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11.Due to the doctrine of ipso facto, one legal uncertainty that foreign investors need not worry about is that environmental laws will be changed once they have invested or begun operations in a host country.

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12.American law fails to regulate pesticides that are exported to other countries.

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13.Before a U.S. firm can export hazardous waste to a foreign country, they must have written consent from that government delivered to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.

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14.There are no U.S. controls over the export of chemicals.

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15.Most of the developing countries of Africa and Latin America are free from the environmental pollution of the heavily industrialized nations.

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16.Developing countries are especially eager to reduce their industrial and transportation emissions.

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17.Nations have made considerable progress in putting into effect regional agreements for the prevention of marine pollution.

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18.Countries of the South Pacific have been very successful in enforcing strict environmental safeguards.

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19.The United Nations has done very little to address the issues of environmental matters.

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20.The Basel Convention on Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes has been adopted by over 150 nations.

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21.The Basel Convention prohibits shipments of hazardous wastes by a signatory country to a country that has not signed the convention.

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22.The most important aspect of the Basel Convention has been that the signatory nations succeeded in defining what constitutes hazardous waste.

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23.Because of the lack of international agreement to protect the ozone layer from damage by chemical emissions into the atmosphere, firms operating in developing countries will be able to continue to emit ozone damaging chemicals in the future.

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24.Under the Montreal Protocol, trade in chlorofluorocarbons is strictly controlled.

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25.Developing nations tend to oppose extensive international environmental regulation because it impairs their ability to profit from...
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