R2P or Right to Protect
Prevention requires apportioning responsibility to and promoting collaboration between concerned States and the international community. Hence the duty to prevent and halt genocide and mass atrocities lies first and foremost with the State, however the international community has a role that cannot be blocked by the invocation of sovereignty. Sovereignty no longer exclusively protects States from foreign interference; it is a charge of responsibility where States are accountable for the welfare of their people. This principle is enshrined in article 1 of the Genocide Convention and embodied in the principle of “sovereignty as responsibility” and in the concept of the Responsibility to Protect. However one concern about eh R2P is that Security Council politics might influence its use, either in favour of in bias against certain states. Recent examples in which the Responsibility to Protect has been enforced include serious human rights abuses in Zimbabwe and crimes again humanity in Sudan. Despite the doctrine, the UN’s power to intervene within any state are restricted by the UN Charter. Under Chapter VI of the Charter, the Security Council can recommend measures for the peaceful settlement of disputes or situations that may lead to international friction. Furthermore, the Charter empowers the SC to take military or non-military action to restore international peace and security, ultimately making the SC the most powerful organ of the UN, and indeed the world. However the SC has been heavily criticised for its reluctance to use its intervention powers to prevent mass atrocities or intervene where serious abuses are occurring. The doctrine is predicted on 3 pillars
States have the responsibility to protect their populations from these crimes The international community is responsible for assisting states to build capacity to protect their populations before such crises or conflicts break out When a state has manifestly failed to...
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