Peace and Security: Futuristic Vision to the Development Discourse The post-Millennium Development Goal (MDG) framework offers the opportunity to develop targets that reflects a more nuanced understanding of the challenge of development. A number of areas are being considered for inclusion in the post-2015 framework, on the basis of their causal or correlated relationship with development. One area in which significant work has been undertaken since the MDGs were agreed in 2000 has been in relation to the role that insecurity or violence plays in constraining development and, concomitantly, the enabling role that peace and stability play in promoting it.1 The Millennium Project noted in 2005 that: ‘of the 34 poor countries farthest from reaching the Goals, 22 are in or emerging from conflict’ (2005: 183). These seeming correlations between insecurity and a lack of progress towards the MDGs thus tapped into ongoing research on quantitative measures of how insecurity limited opportunities for development. According to Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development many societies affected with armed conflict and criminal armed violence is in the lower ranks of Human Development Index (HDI).2 Violent Conflict and Development:
The relationship between security and development has become a mainstay of development policy. Violence and fragility are considered the largest obstacle to the MDGs.3 The post-2015 agenda needs to take a comprehensive approach guided by the Millennium Declaration, which included fundamental values and goals on peace, security and disarmament; development and poverty eradication; human rights democracy and good governance; and protecting the vulnerable. The nature of violent conflicts has changed drastically in recent decades. The predominant form of violent conflict has evolved from national armies fighting each other; to armies fighting for independence, separation or political control; to various forms of violence, involving non-state actors such as rebels, gangs and organized crime. Pakistan is also a victim of this change in violent conflicts. A lot of internal factors are hindering and engulfing the peace desire of people of Pakistan. Afghan war is the major component of these factors challenging peace measures. Global terrorism and armed conflict in Afghanistan have changed the internal security paradigm of Pakistan. Pakistan’s economy has suffered a loss of more than US$ 78 billion in last 10 years only. More than 50,000 Pakistanis, including civilian, Armed Forces and Law-Enforcement Agencies (LEAs) personnel, were affected or sacrificed their lives. Pakistan has rich ethnic diversity. The forces of identity politics and globalization have catalyzed the ethnic strife in Pakistan. Security issues primarily in Karachi and Balochistan are outcome of this ethnic drive. The widespread spectrum of internal threats is a critical impediment to economic development and social cohesion. Traditionally, the entire internal security apparatus acts in a reactive rather than proactive manner. National Security Policy and MDGs:
The violent conflicts are not easily addressed with traditional instruments, such as diplomacy or military means. The drivers of violence include a wide range of factors, including political, economic, social and environmental issues. The multidimensionality of the drivers of the conflict implies that addressing them requires a multidimensional approach that spans the development, political, security and justice areas. 4 Government of Pakistan is in process of reviewing its national agenda to develop it in accordance with the Millennium Development Goals. Peace and security are the fundamentals to be achieved for a prosperous nation. National security policies have been presented by Government of Pakistan in pursuance of achieving peace and maintain security for strengthening development initiatives. The new national security policy will provide a strategic vision and mechanism to...
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