OB Literature Review 2014

Topics: Rwandan Genocide, Decision making, United Nations Pages: 7 (1768 words) Published: February 16, 2015

This literature review covers the utter failure in preventing and stopping the atrocity of the genocide in Rwanda. The review is centred on analysing the different types of decision making processes and the models of decision making adopted by the leader, General Romeo Dallaire and the UN and its member states. It highlights the challenges Dallaire had faced in maintaining a peace process and the inaction of the UN to prevent the genocide. It will focus on the types of decision making processes; sporadic decision, fluid decision and constricted decision. In addition the models of decision making; rational, bureaucratic, garbage can and political will be discussed. The review will also look into the geo-political relations. Dallaire’s assessment was to make a decision whether the UN should commit in sending a full-fledged peacekeeping force to Rwanda. Dallaire required a long period of time to come out with his decision as it required him to do a fact finding mission. Cray, David ; Mallory, Geoffrey R. ; Butler, Richard J. ; Hickson, David J. ; Wilson, David C. (1998) indicated that there is a certain latitude in the way that the decision is made and this leads to these decisions taking more time. Rational decision was made where he had to consider the situation with careful evaluation. This decision was then sent to the UN to make final decision. It was a bureaucratic decision as final decision was to be made at the top level. However, Dallaire knew that the UN would not send force by September 10th. He had to suffer from time delay waiting for decision to be made. This shows an unitary approach of decision making as a general agreement had to be made by the UN. Dallaire planned to create a supportive administrative system to maintain the structure of the peacekeeping force. All these needed planning and he had to report to DPKO and wait for decision to be made by the UN, the highest authority. This can be viewed as a sporadic decision by Dallaire as he had to wait for information. Dallaire faced sporadic decision as he was forcefully reminded that it will take 3 months or more for an agreement to deploy troops. Dallaire had to suffer from time delay despite the severity of the situation. The process was very slow as the report had to be passed to DPKO. From the beginning Dallaire faced resistance from the UN due to its bureaucratic mindset which caused delay in making decisions and hence allowed the genocide to take place. Dallaire made a fluid decision to arrange a meeting with Gasana,a member of the MDR in order to know how committed each side (RPF and RGF) were towards the peace agreement. This had an impact on operations to maintain progress in peacekeeping as it had no restriction. Dallaire made a Chapter 6 recommendation instead of Chapter 7 as he knew that the UN headquarters will not accept it. His decision was quick as he knew the requirements and expectations of the UN. Dallaire had to share supplies with Bangladesh as they did not bring enough rations. Rational decision was made by Dallaire as he had to carefully evaluate the consequences of sharing supplies as there was an inadequate amount of supplies available. According to Jurasova, K., & Spajdel, M. (2011) rational decision makers anticipate regret during the decision making process, but they are not good at correctly predicting regret intensity. Dallaire was supposed to maintain peace but faced numerous obstacles. However, he never gave up. Dallaire made a fluid decision in allowing the Belgian troops to sleep in buildings instead of tents. Dallaire supported the Belgians' request and was unwilling to abandon his decision though it was bad. Dallaire's trait of escalation of commitment can be seen from these acts. Dallaire held a flag raising ceremony to ensure that UNAMIR's presence was known throughout Rwanda. This orderly rational decision was made by Dallaire as a step by step approach to stress the urgency of the peace process. This attribute of...

References: Cray, David ; Mallory, Geoffrey R. ; Butler, Richard J. ; Hickson, David J. ; Wilson, David C. 1988, 'SPORADIC, FLUID AND CONSTRICTED PROCESSES: THREE TYPES OF STRATEGIC DECISION MAKING IN ORGANIZATIONS [1] ', Journal of Management Studies, vol. 25, issue 1, pp. 13-39, viewed 4 August 2014, Ebsco database
DIETZ-UHLER, B. 1996, 'The escalation of commitment in political decision-making groups: a social identity approach ' European Journal of Social Psychology, vol. 26, issue 4, pp. 611-629, viewed 4 August 2014, Wiley online library
Jurasova, K. & Spajdel, M. 2011, 'THE ROLE OF REGRET IN RATIONAL DECISION MAKING ', Studia Psychologica, vol. 53, issue 2, pp. 169-174, viewed 4 August 2014, Proquest Database
Ludwig, E G ; Collette, J 1973, 'Bias in Bureaucratic Decision-Making ' Journal of the National Medical Association, vol. 65, issue 6, pp. 487-91, viewed 4 August 2014,  PubMed Central
Sherman L. Hayes Patricia B. McGee 1998, 'Garbage can decision making” in a “structured anarchy” for your CWIS. Could you translate that for me please?", Campus-Wide Information Systems ', vol. 15, issue, pp. 29 - 33, viewed 4 August 2014, Emerald database
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