Inventory System

Topics: Cost accounting, Education, Accountancy Pages: 15 (5359 words) Published: September 3, 2013
Active Learning Exercises to Enhance Synthesis and Evaluation Skills in Financial Accounting Louella Moore, Arkansas State University Additional Background on the Cases Synthesis and evaluation are skills essential to accounting work. Yet education specialists (Cline & Fay 1990; Pricer 2008; Hodgkinson 2009; Somers & Stettle 2010) suggest that today’s millennial students have grown up in a culture that discourages independent thinking and formation of reasoned opinions. The problem is compounded in the accounting profession by financial accounting textbooks which emphasize structured learning objectives aimed at learning the rules promulgated by standard setters. Emphasizing current rules without an opportunity for reflection on alternative approaches does not help students understand the underlying issues, problems, and evolving compromises inherent in financial accounting standards. Without an opportunity for students to actively think about differences in accounting presentation in order to synthesize and reflect on key concepts, they may memorize the rules but fail to really understand the fundamental problems inherent in modern accounting practice. Finding an efficient mechanism to incorporate activities that stimulate higher order thinking skills should be an essential ingredient in training programs for accounting professionals. One approach to education is to find the students dominant learning style and cater to that style. For many fields this has resulted in textbooks with more pictures and fewer words. One has to question whether this is really serving the best interests of accounting employers. While some research suggests that personality and learning styles are basically fixed and that students will perform better if instructors use techniques that match the student’s learning style, closer reading of some of the pioneering works suggests that with experience one can gradually become comfortable with multiple approaches. (Kolb 1984 & 1985, Scott 2010) Many critiques report that matching teaching to the learning style may not help students as much as early studies suggested. (Stahl 1999; Franklin 2006; Glenn 2009; Fridley & Fridley 2010; Scott 2010) A study by Naik (2009) reports that students want the instructor to provide very detailed learning objectives, provide his/her own examples rather than asking the students to illustrate the concepts, and prefer questions on the exams to be essentially just like those done in class. The problem with this approach is that it conflicts with the needs of employers who want to hire personnel that can think for themselves, synthesize information, and come up with creative out-of-the box solutions in the workplace. (Siegel & Sorensen 1994; AICPA Core Competencies 2003) An alternative to the assumption that learning styles are fixed and must be accommodated is the premise that certain careers like accounting require certain traits. If these traits can be identified they can be used to recruit individuals most likely to be successful in the profession. Or, alternatively, this paper argues there may be techniques we can use in accounting classrooms that will encourage students to develop their latent learning and

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personality characteristics in such a way as to match the needs of the profession they are training to enter. While college level accounting classrooms should be a place where students with a wide range of personalities can feel comfortable and pass the classes, the reality is that specific personality types often gravitate to or self-select to specific types of careers. Accounting employers want to hire individuals who are conscientious in their work, who plan ahead and meet deadlines, and can apply higher order reasoning to solve workplace problems. If these are skills that do not come easily to many students, perhaps our focus should be on developing those skills rather than simply encouraging students to use their dominant personality preference....

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Boyd, D. 2010. Using Textbooks Effectively, Getting Students to Read Them. Teaching Tips. Association for Psychological Science. Available January 4, 2011 at http://www.psychologicalscience.org/teaching/tips/tips_0603.cfm Bloom, B. (Ed.) 1956. Taxonomy of Educational Objectives: The Classification of Educational Goals. Hand Book I: Cognitive Domain. New York: David McDay Company, Inc. Buddy, J. 2007. Using Personality Traits and Effective Communication to Improve Collaboration. School Library Media Activities Monthly. 23(9). Cline, Foster W. & Fay, Jim (1990). Parenting with Love and Logic: Teaching Children Responsibility. Pinon Press. pp. 23–25. ISBN 0-89109-311-7 Davidson, R. & Baldwin, B. 2005. Cognitive Skills Objectives in Intermediate Accounting Textbooks: Evidence from End-of-Chapter Material. Journal of Accounting Education, 23(2): 79+. Devine, C. T. , ed. 1985. Some Impossibilities – Including Allocations. In Essays in Accounting Theory, Vol. 5, 79-91. Sarasota, FL: American Accounting Association. Franklin, S. 2006. VAKing Out Learning Styles – Why the Notion of ‘Learning Styles’ is Unhelpful to Teachers, Education 34(1): 84. Fridley, W. & Fridley, C. 2010. Some Problems and Peculiarities with the Learning Styles Rhetoric & Practice, Journal of Philosophy and History of Education, 60: 21-27. Glenn, D. December 15, 2009. Matching Teacher Style to Learning Style May Not Help Students. Chronicle of Higher Education. Gupta, S. & Marshall, L. 2010. Congruence Between Entry-Level Accountants’ Required Competencies and Accounting Textbooks. Academy of Educational Leadership Journal, 14(1): 1-12. Hartmann, T. 2003. The Edison Gene: ADHD and the Gift of the Hunter Child. Rochester, Vt: Park Street Press. Healy, J. 1999. Endangered Minds: Why Children Don’t Think and What We Can Do about It. New York: Simon & Schuster. Hodgkinson, T. 2009. The Idle Parent: Why Less Means More When Raising Kids. Hamish Hamilton. pp. 233. ISBN 978-0241143735. http://idler.co.uk/news/the-idle-parent/. Hobson, P. 2003. Use Colors to Improve Working Relationships. Women in Higher Education. November 1.
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Kalil, C. 1998. Follow Your True Colors to the Work You Love: The Popular Method for Matching Your Personality to Your Career. True Colors, Inc. Kolb, D. 1984. Experiential Learning: Experience as the Source of Learning and Development. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall. Kolb, D. 1985. Learning Style Inventory, Revised edition. Boston, MA: Hay Group, Hay Resources Direct. Melano, N. 2000. Project Management Reveals True Colours. ComputerWorld Canada. May 19. Miscisin. M. 2005. Showing Our True Colors. Santa Ana, California: True Colors, Inc. Publishing. Moore, L. 1994. Learning Theory Perspectives on Business Cases, Proceedings of the Southwest Case Research Association, pp. 6-14. Moore, L. 1994. Using Case Studies to Encourage Integrative Thinking. Proceedings of the Souwestern Business Administration Teaching Conference, 35-38. Moore, L. 1999. A Comparative Ratio Analysis Case in Governmental Accounting, Proceedings of the American Society of Business and Social Sciences Meeting, February 20. Moore, L. 2001. Three Fiscal Crises: An Exercise in Comparison and Critical Analysis, Case and Instructor’s Manual presented at Southwest Case Research Association Meeting, New Orleans, LA. Moore, L. 2002. Goodwill Accounting: New and Improved or Fatally Flawed? Research Journal of Business Disciplines. 8: October, 35-40. Moore, L. 2006. Using Fiscal Crises Themes in Governmental Accounting Classes, Effective Learning Strategies Session, American Accounting Association Meeting August 9-11, Washington, DC. Moore, L. 2009. Economic “Reality” and the Myth of the Bottom Line. Accounting Horizons. 23(3): 327-340. Moore, L., Barner, B., Bradberry, M., Bratton, M., Sloas, A, & Sukiyama, K. 2003. Proceedings of the International Business & Economic Research Conference, October 6, Las Vegas, Nevada. Moore, L. & Foster, E. 2006. Garbage Accounting: Controversies in Landfill Accounting. Proceedings of the Society of Business, Indusry and Economics Conference, Natchez, MS.
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Moore, L. & Quinn, T. 2001. Interest Capitalization: FASB vs. GASB Approaches. Journal of Accounting & Finance Research, 9(4): 34-46. Moore, L. & Steinbauer, R. 2008. Islamic Influences on Worldwide Business and Accounting Practice, Proceedings of the International Association of Business and Public Administration Disciplines, Memphis, TN. Myers, I., McCaulley, M., Quenk, N. & Hammer, A. 1998. MBTI Manual (A guide to the development and use of the Myers Briggs type indicator). Consulting Psychologists Press; 3rd ed edition. Naik, B. 2009. An Investigation of Learning Styles of Business Students. Proceedings of the 16 th Annual International Business Conference, October 1-3, 2009, pp. 340-350. Phillips, B. & Phillips, J. 2007. Sink or Skim: Textbook Reading Behaviors of Introductory Accounting Students, Issues in Accounting Education. 22(1): 21-44. Pricer, W. 2008. At issue: Helicopter parents and millennial students, an annotated bibliography. Community College Enterprise 14.2 (2008): 93-108. Scott, C. 2010. The Enduring Appeal of ‘Learning Styles,’ Australian Journal of Education, 54(1): 5-17. Siegel, G. & Sorenson, J. E. 1994. What Corporate American Wants in Entry-Level Accountants. Management Accounting, 76(3): 26-31. Somers, P. & Stettle, J. Summer 2010. The Helicopter Parent. College & University, 86(1): 1827. Stahl, S. 1999. Different Strokes for Different Folks? A Critique of Learning Styles. American Educator, 23: 3: 27-31. State Council of Higher Education for Virginia. January 10, 2006. A Report on Textbook Purchasing Practices and Costs in the Commonwealth. Available as of January 4, 2011 at http://www.schev.edu/Reportstats/2006TextbookStudy.pdf Thomas, A. L. 1969. Studies in Acounting Research #3: The Allocation Problem in Financial Accounting Theory. Sarasota, FL: American Accounting Association. Wolk, H., Dodd, J. & Rozycki, J. 2008. Accounting Theory: Conceptual Issues in a Political and Economic Environment. Sage Publications.
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