IGO’s and NGO’s - 1st lecture
What is an IO?
Strict Definition – “ A formal, continuous structure established by agreement between members (…) from at least two sovereign states with the aim of pursuing the common good of the membership”
Loose/updated definition – “Any type of patterned, repetitive set of implicit or explicit principles, rules and decision-making procedures around which actors expectations converge in a given area”
Types of International Organizations
IGO’s – International Governmental Organizations
NGO’s - Non Governmental Organizations
INGO’s – International Non - Governmental Organizations
MNC’s and TNC’s – Multinational and transnational Organizations
IGO’s The members of these organizations are the sovereign states/nation states that join the organization voluntary (UN, EU, NATO) The purpose, structure and decision-making procedures are included in a charter. The membership can be Universal or Limited. This means that in an Universal organization all nation states are allowed to join like the UN. Limited means that only are only allowed member who fulfil some criteria. He purpose can be General or Narrow. General means that a variety of issues can be addressed and Narrow means that the organization focuses on specific economic or social issues. Three conditions for an IGO– Independent political communities. Rules agreed among such communities. A formal structure to implement such rules. Three factors determining the emergence of an IGO are: Problems, Ideas and Power.
INGO’s The members are Non-Profit, Non-Governmental (private) organizations that engage in a variety of international activities. They can have a single or multi-purpose agenda. They pressure governments and IGO’s through direct and indirect lobbying. They define goals (e.g. environmental), provide information and give expert advice ( e.g. scientific reports). The difference between a NGO and an INGO is the scope whilst the former has a national scope the latter has an international scope. They can be, or not, recognized by the IGO’s and even became an official partner like UN ECOSOC or the RED CROSS. These legitimates the INGO’s place in inter-governmental diplomacy. They are recognized as a necessary stakeholder in coping with the negative impacts of globalization
MNC’s/TNC’s – The Multinationals/ Transnationals organizations are contrary to the INGO’s/NGO’s for profit (businesses) organizations (firms) with subsidiaries in two or more countries. Their activities include moving goods and services across national borders. There is an economic decision-making shift from national level to international level, and in some areas of economic policy governments have lost sovereignty. MNC’s/TNC’s can evade taxation or government financial control. They can limit government control over international trade, and they have the ability to move production which constrains individual governments in regulations and taxation.
State – A geographic territory with international recognized boundaries, an identified population that live within those boundaries, and a recognized government.
Sovereignty – The ability of the government to act within a territory independently from internal or external rivals, and to take decisions for itself without interference from outside.
Globalization – Intensified global social interconnectivity, the contraction of space and time distances, an apparent dissolution of national, regional differences or the triumph of capitalist imperialism and free-market economics.
League of Nations & UN
League of Nations
Founded in 1919 was the response to the devastation of WWI. It’s foundation is the recognition that states must prevent war in the age of technological advances, and that International institutions can play a critical role. The main task of the League of Nations was to strengthen international security worldwide. The US did not join the...
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