Introduction about Peace Keeping:
Peacekeeping refers to activities that tend to create conditions that favour lasting peace. The Peace Keeping emphasised non-coercive activities aimed at re-establishing and maintaining peaceful international intercourse. Nonviolent accompaniment or interventions, Speaking out for those who have little or no voice, Bearing witness to the facts, mechanisms, dynamics, and results of violence and oppression, standing in the way of i.e., nonviolent resistance against violent or oppressive behaviours. A UN peacekeeping operation consists of military, police and civilian personnel, who work to deliver security, political and early peace building support. Most of these operations have been established and implemented by the UN itself, with troops serving under UN operational control. In these cases, peacekeepers – popularly called the Blue Berets or Blue Helmets remain members of their respective armed forces, and do not constitute an independent ‘UN army’ as the UN does not have such a force. History and Background of Peacekeeping
United Nations Peacekeeping began in 1948 when the Security Council authorized the deployment of UN military observers to the Middle East. The mission's role was to monitor the Armistice Agreement between Israel and its Arab neighbours – an operation which became known as the United Nations Truce Supervision Organization (UNTSO). History of Peacekeeping is broked into three parts:
The Early Years:
UN Peacekeeping was born at a time when Cold War rivalries frequently paralyzed the Security Council. Peacekeeping was primarily limited to maintaining ceasefires and stabilizing situations on the ground, providing crucial support for political efforts to resolve conflict by peaceful means. Those missions consisted of unarmed military observers and lightly armed troops with primarily monitoring, reporting and confidence-building roles. The first two peacekeeping operations deployed by the UN were the UN Truce Supervision Organization (UNTSO) and the UN Military Observer Group in India and Pakistan (UNMOGIP). Both of these missions, which continue operating to this day also, exemplified the observation and monitoring type of operation and had authorized strengths in the low hundreds. The UN military observers were unarmed. The earliest armed peacekeeping operation was the First UN Emergency Force (UNEF I) deployed successfully in 1956 to address the Suez Crisis. The UN Operation in the Congo (ONUC), launched in 1960, was the first large-scale mission having nearly 20,000 military personnel at its peak. ONUC demonstrated the risks involved in trying to bring stability to war-torn regions - 250 UN personnel died while serving on that mission, including the Secretary-General Dag Hammarskjold. In the 1960s and 1970s, the UN established short-term missions in the Dominican Republic - Mission of the Representative of the Secretary-General in the Dominican Republic, West New Guinea, Yemen, and started longer term deployments in Cyprus and the Middle East and Lebanon. In 1988, UN peacekeepers were awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. At that time, the Nobel Committee cited “the Peacekeeping Forces through their efforts have made important contributions towards the realization of one of the fundamental tenets of the United Nations. Thus, the world organization has come to play a more central part in world affairs and has been invested with increasing trust”. Post Cold-War surge
With the end of the Cold War, the strategic context for UN Peacekeeping changed dramatically. The UN shifted and expanded its field operations from “traditional” missions involving generally observational tasks performed by military personnel to complex “multidimensional” enterprises. These multidimensional missions were designed to ensure the implementation of comprehensive peace agreements and assist in laying the foundations for sustainable peace. The nature of conflicts also changed over...
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