Despite the decolonization occurred in the aftermath of the Second World War (1939–45), the former colonial powers continue to apply existing and past international economic arrangements to maintain colonial control over African countries. This can be witnessed in the military intervention by western countries which is to some authors is done for humanitarian purposes or to expand neo-colonialism. “Neo-colonialism entails the domination in social, economic and culture of countries from the developed world that is the western countries in the respective internal affairs of the countries of the developing world that is African countries” (jean Paul: 2001). Intervention is a term which covers a wide variety of situations where one actor intervenes in the affairs of another (Evans 2008:146). “A state’s foreign intervention can be non-violent involving the threat or use of economic, diplomatic, or other sanctions, or violent, involving military intervention” (Holzgrefe and Keohane: 2003, p.18). “Strategically intervention aims at fostering national security of the intervening state that is undertaken to achieve territorial security regional stability, restoration or consolidation of democratic government, and regime transformation” (Amstutz 2005, p139). • Western military intervention in Libya (2011)
According to Libya live blog (19-03-2011) “on the 19th of March 2011, a lot of western countries began a military intervention in Libya to implement United Nations Security Council Resolution 1973, the intervention was taken in response to events during the Libyan civil war, led by Qaddafi’s regime and military operations began, with US and British naval forces firing over 110 Tomahawk cruise missiles, the French Air Force, British royal air force and Canadian air force undertaking the action across Libya and a naval blockade by Coalition forces. The no-fly zone against Libyan Army tanks and vehicles by French jets was then confirmed”. “Fighting in Libya ended in late October following the death of Muammar Gaddafi, and NATO stated it would end operations over Libya on 31 October 2011. Libya's new government requested that its mission be extended to the end of the year, but on 27 October, the Security Council voted to end NATO's mandate for military action on 31 October” (France 24, 16-10-2011).
• Responsibility to protect
To a larger extent in the case of Libya (2011) military intervention was done for humanitarian purpose that is it was a responsibility of western countries to protect. “Humanitarian intervention serves to protect human rights in the targeting country, it is the threat or use of force across state borders by a state or group of states aimed at preventing or ending widespread and grave violations of the fundamental human rights of individuals other than its own citizens, each individual State has the responsibility to protect its populations from genocide, war crimes, ethnic cleansing and crimes against humanity” (Holzgrefe and Keohane 2003, p.18). This responsibility entails the prevention of such crimes, including their incitement, through appropriate and necessary means “We accept that responsibility and will act in accordance with it” that is all independent countries are entitled to this statement. The international community should, as appropriate, encourage and help States to exercise this responsibility and support the United Nations in establishing an early warning capability (Roberts: 2013). In this case there were consistent reports of widespread and systematic violations of international humanitarian and human rights law, primarily by pro-Gaddafi forces, paramilitaries and mercenaries, the UN estimates that up to 3.6 million Libyans may require humanitarian assistance (ABC:23-02-2011). This triggered the intervention by North Atlantic Treaty Organization soldiers to protect citizens who were under threat against Qaddafi regime.
The intervention in Libya was founded on a...
References: ➢ J.L. Holzgrefe and Robert O. Keohane, 2003, Unilateral Humanitarian Intervention and the Future of Law. In Humanitarian Intervention: Ethical, Legal, and Political Dilemmas, 177-203. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
➢ Evans, Gareth. 2008. The Responsibility to Protect: Ending Mass Atrocity Crimes Once and For All. Washington, D.C.: The Brookings Institution.
➢ Kinsman, J. 2011, "LIBYA: A CASE FOR HUMANI T ARIAN INTERVENTION", POLICY, vol. 81
➢ Russia 's foreign broadcasting service “Saving the world economy from Gaddafi." RT
➢ J., Owens, P. and Smith, S., Bellamy, A.J., Williams, P.D. 2011, "The new politics of protection? Cote d 'Ivoire, Libya and the responsibility to protect”, International Affairs, vol. 87.
➢ Sartre, Jean-Paul (2001). Colonialism and neo-colonialism. Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-19146-3.
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