1. What is “housing shortage”?
Ans: Housing shortage is occurs when there is insuffient housing to accommodate the population in an area, when the supply of houses cannot meet the demand. It also includes situations where housing is unaffordable for those who need it. The presence of homeless people, and slums and squatter settlements, is also an indication of housing shortage.
2. What is “inclusive housing”?
Ans: An inclusive city is one that provides all residents with adequate housing and access to all basic services such as transportation and recreation. An inclusive city is also where residents, whether rich or poor, young or old, feel a sense of belonging and actively contributes to the community. One of the ways in which Singapore hopes to achieve its vision of an inclusive city is through the provision of inclusive housing. Some characteristics of inclusive housing include having housing that is affordable and ensuring a quality living environment.
3. Africa- Cairo, Egypt
North America- Los Angeles, California
Asia- Beijing, China
South America- Brasilia, Brazil
Oceania- Sydney, New South Wales
Europe- London, England
4. Why does housing shortage occur?
Ans: One reason for housing shortage in cities is rapid population growth. Rapid population growth has led to an increased demand for housing. The projected increase in urban population will cause further pressure.
Another reason is migration. Migration refers to the movement of people from one area to another to take up residence for at least a year. One of the reasons that the urban population is increasing rapidly is rural-urban migration. Rural-urban migration refers to the movement of people from rural areas into cities or from one city to another to live and work. The reasons for migration can be categorized as “push” factors or “pull” factors. “Push” factors are related to the undesirable qualities of the place of the place they would like to move to. Some examples of “pull” factors are the promise of work opportunities in the cities, better school and further education, more hospitals and doctors compared to the rural areas, political stability, and the perception of exciting city life. Some examples of “push” factors is the lack of job opportunities in the rural areas, poor educational facilities, lack of medicinal attention, famine, and war. People move to cities in search of a better life.
Some cities experience high rates of natural increase due to high birth rates and declining death rates. Birth rate refers to the number of live births for every 1,000 people in a year. Natural increase is the difference between the birth rate and the death rate in a year. High birth rates in cities may be high. Cities have a large proportion of people who are in their 20s and 30s who are likely to start families. This leads to above-average rates of fertility, which contributes to the high natural increase in cities. To cater for the increase in population, the city would need to allocate more resources to housing. Another reason for housing shortage is competing land use. There are many uses for land, such as residential, commercial, industrial, and recreational use. Land is also needed for infrastructure such as roads, airports, and hospitals. With so many uses for land in cities, stiff competition may result in insufficient land being set aside for housing. Land dedicated for one use will not be available for another. If a piece of land is occupied by a huge industrial park, that plot of land will not be available for housing development. Sometimes, a conflict of interest may arise between various different groups of people. For example, environmentalists may oppose the setting up of factories next to a nature reserve, as they are concerned about pollution. However, another group of people may be in favor of the development due to the revenue that can be generated from the industrial activities. Cities have limited land supply for...
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