This assignment will focus on the effects of health promotion within the public sector and how obesity is being tackled amongst health professionals by promoting healthy lifestyles, and reducing the morbidity and mortality rates of obesity related diseases. Using Maryon-Davis’ Obesity Model to systematically review the literature and furthermore evaluate the nurse’s role in promoting the highlighted issue, with any future proposals to improve practice between nurses. The World Health Organisation (WHO) Ottawa Charter defined health promotion as “the process of enabling people to increase control over, and to improve, their health. To reach a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being, an individual or group must be able to identify and realise aspirations, to satisfy needs, and to change or cope with the environment”. (WHO 1986) According to the World Health Organisation’s (WHO) Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion (1986): political science can help address health inequalities, environmental, biological or socio-economic problems that cause illness in our society. The United Kingdom Public Health Association (UKPHA) affirms health promotion helps to protect and improve the well-being of society, as well as being the most effective. (UKPHA 2009) Obesity is recognised as a world-wide epidemic. In 2006, the National Heart Forum collected statistics which showed that in England 22% of men and 23 % of women were obese, and it predicts that these figures are set to rise if people fail to adopt healthier lifestyles. Ainsworth (2007) highlights those around one in five children were overweight in 2005. The National Obesity Observatory (2010) supports the statistics and predicts that “by year 2050, 60% of adult males and 50% of adult females and 25% of children will be affected by obesity”. WHO (2006a) defines obesity as abnormal or excessive fat accumulation, which can be distinguished by a body mass index of 30 or above using a measurement of height and weight ratio. Kapit et al(2000) depicts that “insulin and leptin secretory changes are believed to contribute to obesity. Hypothyroidism is often associated with increased fat. Increase in fat content associated with increased leptin secretion, which acts on the hypothalamus to decrease appetite and food intake and possibly to increase of fat-mobilising hormones to use the extra fat for energy”. Obesity isn’t just recognised as a major issue in the UK but is becoming a major cause of death around the world, the morbidity and mortality from obesity related diseases has put a huge strain on the health budgets and caused a considerable social and personal problems to the affected individuals (Brooker 2013); the global epidemic of obesity is caused through a combination of genetic factors, easy access of high energy foods and a decreased physical activity in affluent societies. (Kopelman 2000) . Martini (2006) supported that although genetic factors play some role, the societal changes associated with modernisation, mechanised transportation, and less manual labour, joined with economic development and globalised food markets, has increased chances of obesity in all ethnic minorities. The affected individuals are at a high risk of developing diabetes, hypertension, hypercholesterimia, and coronary artery disease, as well as gallstones, thrombi and emboli, hernias, degenerative arthritis, varicose veins, and some forms of cancer (Martini et al. 2006). Waine(2007) states that there are at least 45 comorbidities. Allender et al(2007) stressed that obesity contributes to approximately 200,000 of cardiovascular deaths every single year. Unfortunately, categorising an obesity problem is less important in clinical setting than is defining the degree of obesity and the number and severity of the related complications. (Martini 2006). Looking at the statistics and the extent of this major world-wide issue it is clear that at present there is a necessity for a collaborative...
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