unit #5 International organization, international law and Human security
Creation of the United Nations: Was created after the failed League of Nation in 1945 Mission: Prevent World War, provide World Security. Liberal internationalism
The Security Council is the most important organ of the UN. There are 193 members and 5 permanent members: US, Russia, China, UK and France) and they’re the same since 1945. Japan and Germany are leading candidates for additional permanent seat.
In 1998, the International Criminal Court was created. It focuses on War Crimes, crimes against humanity, genocide in the armed conflicts
Article 23: A Pipe Dream? Reforming the United Nations - Thomas G. Weiss US contribution to the UN: 50% of overall budget and ¼ of peacekeeping costs
The central challenge
Dramatic transformations are needed to solve problems that threaten human survival and dignity. Many of most intractable challenge facing humankind are transnational. Climate change, migration terrorism and weapon of mass destruction require global policies and vigorous actions. But the policy authority remains individual rather than collective. More fundamental reforms of multilateral institutions must be made so that they word effectively and in the common interest.
The United Nations’ main weaknesses
The UN too often suffers paralysis.
1st malady: Vital interests are the only basis on which to make commitments or avoid them. It created obstacles to actions by the UN. All states are loath to accept elements of overarching central authority. 2nd malady: Differences between North and developing countries provides the drama. 3rd malady: It’s structural. It arises not only from the overlapping jurisdictions of various UN bodies, the lack of coordination among their activities, and the absence of centralized financing for the system as a whole; but they’re also exacerbated by the nature of staff and its leadership. A related disorder stems from the overwhelming weight of the UN bureaucracy, it’s low productivity, and often underwhelming leadership within international secretariats World body’s recruitment and promotion methods are part of what ails it.
Some palliatives if not solutions
1st remedy: It required building upon spotty yet significant progress in recasting national interest. It consists of more energic recalculation of the shared benefits of providing global public goods and respecting international commitments. 2nd remedy: States accept limits on the exercise of their sovereignty by ratifying treaties to constrain their margins of maneuver. Chipping away at sovereignty is a long-term project. We need to have different country configurations for different problem and stop thinking about fixed membership, and especially universal participations. 3rd remedy: Pursue the possibility of making the UN work with more cohesion. Moving back to the future for the UN would involve recruiting people with integrity and talent.
Multilateralism must re-emerge as a priority for this administration. Multilateral approaches to punish horrific deeds and mitigating global threats must be not only pragmatic and well adapted to local realities but also spectacular and utopian. The World Organization urgently needs to reinvent itself and to be a vital force in global affairs.
Article 24: Who’s afraid of the International Criminal Court? Finding the Persecutor who can set it straight – David Kaye The ICC seems to be an indispensable international player; it already is looking into some of the gravest atrocities committed in recent decades (Congo, Sudan, Uganda, etc…). Its reputation is in question after the fails with Joseph KONY and Omar al-Bashir. The 114 States that have ratified the Rome Statute will elect a successor to Moreno-OCAMPO (Office Persecutor). His role was to choose which situation to investigate, which senior officials to indict and which charge to bring. The new Persecutor will need to meet the...
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