UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI
INSTITUTE OF ANTHROPOLOGY GENDER AND AFRICAN STUDIES
B.A GENDER AND DEVELOPMENT STUDIES
NGE 204: GENDER AND GOVERNANCE
PRESENTED TO: PROF. KIBE KIRAGU
CYNTHIA NJERI NJOROGE
DISCUSS THE FACT THAT SKEWED GOVERNANCE CREATES GENDER MARGINALIZATION INTRODUCTION
One of the key Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) is the elimination of differences in the extent to which women can participate in social, legal, political, institutional, and economic development processes; are integrated into land, labor, product, and financial markets; and access livelihood-improving services (World Bank 2003, 2006). The achievement of gender equality is not only instrumental to improving the livelihood and human development of women, but is also considered to be critical to attaining all the other MDGs on poverty; education, environment, health, and nutrition (World Bank, 2003). Despite the central role of gender equality for development, gender inequality is pervasive in most parts of the world although to a different extent. It has been noted the central pillar of governance in gender inequality. Gender inequality is measured by the degree by which women are empowered by national building activities. Therefore, this shows that governance needs to be good in order for women not be marginalized. Marginalization refers to relegate to an unimportant or powerless position within a society. This is contributed by skewed governance which means making polices, or laws that are biased in a way that is regarded as inaccurate, unfair or misleading. This is contrary to what governance is which the exercise of power is as well as the management of the social and economic resources of the citizens. Hence, this paper shall attempt to discuss the fact the skewed governance creates gender marginalization. WAYS IN WHICH SKEWED GOVERNACE CREATES GENDER MARGINALIZATION 1. ECONOMIC GOVERNANCE
Economic governance, includes decision making processes that affect a country's economic activities, is one of the areas that needs to be scrutinized. Since the beginning of the Decade for women in 1976 to the present, the considerable differences in most societies between women's and men's access to and control over productive resources and opportunities to exert power over economic structures has been recognised as a structural cause of gender inequality (Mukhopadhyay, 1998). In the African context, while it is true that more than a third of the population lives in abject poverty and is unable to meet their basic needs, the heavy burden of poverty falls disproportionately on women, especially female-headed households. Women are the backbone of both cash crop and subsistence farming, yet their productive and reproductive activities are not recognised as economic outputs (UNECA, 1994). It has been shown through research that women's greater access and control over productive resources can increase their productivity and obtain higher return on their labour. The situation obtaining now is that most women work in the informal sectors of the economy where remuneration is low, risks high and opportunities for skill attainment almost non-existent. There is need to enhance women's economic autonomy and this requires institutional and legal mechanisms to ensure that they have equal rights to inheritance and ownership of property are able to obtain credit in their own right and to access opportunities for training.
2. GUARANTEEING WOMEN’S EQUAL RIGHTS
Guaranteeing women's equal rights in Africa and other regions remains a critical concern. While the Universal Declaration of Human Rights recognizes women's rights as human rights, there is ample evidence to show that women do not enjoy equal rights in Africa and other regions. It is true that many African countries declare women's equal rights in their constitutions but in reality, inequality persists because there is lack of enforcement. The situation is made worse by...
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