“India wants to modify the present world order, but never overthrow it.”
In the pyramid of world powers in 1947, India was perhaps at the rock bottom. However, within a short span of three or four decades India had pushed forward its position and became a most developed country among the developing countries. The 21 century is dramatic changes have happened in the shift of global power to start a power distribution in global politics. This 21th century has been a different from cold war period. The end in the ideological clash and strategic competition has led to a new hope of building a peaceful and cooperative world order. Foreign policy of a country is the key to promote a peaceful world order. The foreign policy is an instrument to promote and protect its national interest. It defends the territorial integrity and sovereignty, enhance the economic and social well-being of the people and provide trading opportunities with other countries. However the foreign policy must be flexible and must keep up with the changing international as well as national environment. The foreign policy is determined by the times in which it is conducted. During cold war period two power structures or bloc s were present- U.S.A and USSR maintaining a bipolar world order and keeping a check over the balance of power. India at that point of time did not take the side of the either of the party and evolved with a new concept of non -aligned group of nations. Non alignment was an idealistic approach aimed at maintaining national independence in foreign affairs by not joining any military alliance formed by the USA and USSR. In justifying this policy Nehru observed, ― “India is too big a country. India is going to be and is bound to be a country that wants in world affairs...... while remaining quite apart from power blocs”. After the fall of USSR and marking an end of cold war as Waltz analysed there was a shift from bi-polar world to one soul new emerging unipolar world. This change brought new challenges to India foreign policy forcing it to change from idealistic to a new pragmatic realist approach. In this unipolar world india faced challenges like balancing the relations with global powers, building a new partnership with regional organization, expanding the influence in Asia, enhance India‘s economic and energy security, to deal with environmental threats, UN reforms and permanent membership of Security Council and active pursuit for multipolar world. These challenges also include domestic and regional security, political insurgency and economic relationships with other countries.
Relationship with Power blocs
India’s main objective of Foreign policy is to achieve global power status. This will happen if India maintains a healthy relationship with U.S., China, Russia and European Union. India’s relationship with U.S. has seen a considerable change after cold war where India willing made changes economic, technological, and cultural and defence relations with US. This change will show that India has the potential to get the global power status. The civil nuclear energy cooperation deal that has been signed between both countries is an example of this relation. The Indo-US bilateral relationship progress through the next step in strategic partnership initiative (NSSA). This it is believed to lead towards significant economic benefits for both countries and improve regional and global security. The 123 nuclear treaty was historical event in confidence building for both countries. Some other factors such as belief in democracy and democratic values also bring India- U.S very close. Besides US, china is another important player playing in the world politics and particularly in Asia. India and China have rivalry, competition and cooperation in matters of world politics. They are rivalry about the border issues, competitor in market economy, for influence in Asian politics, not only in ASEAN but also in south and west Asia....
Please join StudyMode to read the full document