ANALYSIS OF UNITED NATION’S ROLE IN CONFLICT RESOLUTION AND THE FUTURE CHALLENGES
The UN which came into existence in October 1945, revived the “Charter” of League of Nations for “Collective Security”. Under various resolutions and clauses the UN peacekeeping operations followed evolving trends, affected by various types of conflicts and power equations. The concept of peacekeeping is borne out of a universal quest for a better world wherein all sovereign states demand equal recognition and seek peace, prosperity and their professed goals. By internal or external conflict, these states seek to attain their hopes and aspirations through mediation by a regional power or by the world body. The spectrum of “UN Peace Initiatives” covers the gambit of preventive diplomacy, peacekeeping, peace building and a series of actions to bring about peace. The end of the cold war has brought about enormous upsurge in ethnic, religious and other local conflicts. Many of these conflicts pre-date the Cold War period and have deep historical and cultural roots. Because of their serious humanitarian implications or consequences for international peace and security there is no other alternative for the international community, than to respond to these conflicts with a view to their resolution, or at least to their alleviation. While the achievements of United Nations peacekeeping are substantial, there is a long and hazardous process of trial and error before us. Moreover, now the United Nations Peacekeeping is faced with unprecedented challenges. These challenges have strained the capacity and resources of the United Nations. The 1990’s have seen wide swings in public opinion towards United Nations peacekeeping. The euphoria and high expectations regarding what the United Nations can deliver have been replaced by the rude shocks and deflated assessment of its capacity to successfully cope with conflicts.
In the light of above, carry out a brief analysis of the role of UN in Conflict Resolution, with a view to assess the major weaknesses and draw suitable recommendations, so that UN can prove to be even more potent instrument and a dynamic tool for international peace and security. ABSTRACT
The end of the cold war and the virtual collapse of the power system led by the Soviet Union abruptly terminated the parameters within which the old order operated. A new era started with the Gulf war, which created a feeling that in the Post Soviet period, the UN representing a world aroused would serve peace and restore equilibrium – the phenomenon of Collective Security had come to stay. The conflict of Yugoslavia to an extent highlights the limits of UN capability and power. The tragedy of Sarajevo continued for years and engulfed the entire region including Kosovo and Macedonia. The solution to such conflicts will always be a long way off – patience, perseverance and persistence will need to be exercised by the UN. During the Cold War the international community was confronted with a singular threat to security. Now the problems confronted are in the form of intra/inter-state disputes, based on ethnic and social disorder to meet new demands to undertake peacekeeping operations- not only in military functions but covering diverse activities – from conducing elections in countries with internal strife to humanitarian (intervention) assistance. Having an insight into the resurgence of peacekeeping operations, it is necessary to reiterate that the success of peacekeeping is evaluated based on the UN mission having carried out its mandate effectively. In brief the evaluation of participation is dependent upon the quality of the mandate given by the Security Council, the cooperation of the parties in implementing that mandate, the continuing support of the Security Council, the readiness of the member states to contribute personnel, effectiveness of UN commander in the field...
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