Running Head: COMPARING HEALTH CARE SYSTEMS
Comparing Health Care Systems Between Canada & The United Arab Emirates Mahmoud Shehada
Submitted to: Prof. Robert Despatie
There are many differences between the healthcare systems in the United Arab Emirates and Canada. While both countries provide comprehensive healthcare for its citizens, the characteristics of the said countries differ greatly mainly due to its population dynamics. In addition, in terms of development, the UAE has not reached the state that the Canadian health care sector is currently in. Keeping the population size in mind, it is no surprise that Canada’s expenditure is much larger than the United Arab Emirates. Even though both countries are in different stages of development, one could forecast that when the UAE’s development is at par with Canada, its expenditure will be used in a significantly more efficient manner. In order to analyze this, the expenditure per capita, number of hospitals and number of certified doctors will be evaluated from an economic perspective. Before going into the economic details of how both health care systems are established, the historical development of each health care system must first be made clear. In Canada during 1867 the responsibility of initiating, handling and maintaining any health care institution was the sole responsibility of the provincial government. The federal government, however, controlled the marine hospitals and quarantine. Funding and delivery of health care in Canada, prior to World War II was mainly private. The first provincial hospital insurance program in Canada was established in 1947 by “The father of Medicare”, Tommy Douglas. The concept of a provincial hospital insurance program caught on to other provinces inviting them to slowly grasp the same concept in developing provincial hospital insurance programs. The major changes that occurred in the Canadian health care system were in the 1960’s and 1970’s. The Medical Care Act – otherwise known as Medicare today, was passed in 1966. Under this act, the federal government offered to reimburse and pay much of the provincial healthcare costs, the amount being one half of the costs. . This brought about a more disciplined and secure system rather than the surcharges that doctors invoiced at that time. This caused doctors to take a stance and began over billing to compensate for the lower incomes that they were generating that caused another health act to follow in 1984 to ban extra billing (Health Canada, 2012).
Over the next decade some reforms were made such as the reduction in health expenditure from the federal government to the provincial government. Today the system remains intact and allows private insurance companies to offer coverage for services that are not covered by Medicare (Health Canada, 2012)
Unlike Canada, The United Arab Emirates is still a relatively new country, gaining their independence in 1971. Although their independence was gained in 1971, the first efforts of health care are traced back to 1943 with the establishment of the first medical center in the city of Dubai. Throughout the years the rulers of each Emirate decided to enhance the quality of their healthcare system by building hospitals in different emirates and expanding their knowledge of medicine from abroad (Our History, 2012). In 1982, the UAE’s federal government comprehensively covered all residents, however, as expected with the growing costs of maintaining such a regime, the country decided to reform this act by offering full health care coverage to citizens only. Non-citizens were responsible for covering all medical costs with the exception of child, maternity and emergency care (Regional Health Systems Observatory, 2013).
By the 1990s a modern health care system fully equipped with facilities and top of the line professionals was established. This increased job opportunities for expatriates as well as nationals,...
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16. 17. Skinner, B., & Rovere, M. (2011). Studies in health care policy. Retrieved from http://www.fraserinstitute.org/uploadedFiles/fraser-ca/Content/research-
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