AP HUG Notes Ch. 12
Centrifugal Forces: Challenges to State Authority
Centrifugal Force: In political geography, forces of disruption and dissolution threatening the unity of a state These forces are always present
Transportation and communication can be hard depending on a country’s shape and size; loyalty of citizens can be lost without an organized country; institution can be a divisive force in some countries Organized religion can be a centrifugal force; it competes with the state for people’s allegiance -Ex. the former USSR and other communist gov. suppressed religion and promoted atheism Conflicts between major and minor religions like Catholics and Protestants can disrupt social order Muslim militant groups attempt to overrun governments that they think is inefficient; Islamic fundamentalism led to the 1979 overthrow of the Shah of Iran. Islamic militancy is affecting Afghanistan, Algeria, Iraq, Tunisia, Egypt, and Saudi Arabia Nationalism can also be a centrifugal force, particularly in countries with multiple nationalities, unassimilated minorities, racial or ethnic conflict, different cultures, or many languages or religion; this leads to challenges within borders Subnationalism: Many people give their primary allegiance to traditional groups or nations that are smaller than the population of the entire state Self-determination: The right of a group to govern itself in its own state or territory Minority groups in a country can challenge if they think their right to self-determination isn’t satisfied Separatism or Autonomous Nationalism: A dissident minority that has a total or partial secession from the state as its primary goal -Ex: French-speaking Quebec wanted to secede from Canada; in October of 1995 there was a referendum for this that failed only by a slight margin In Western Europe, the United Kingdom, France, Belgium, Italy, and Spain have separatist political movements that have members that reject total control for regional autonomy-...
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