An Exception to the Brandt Line
Generally, more developed countries (MDCs) are in the northern hemisphere, and most less developed countries (LDCs) are in the southern hemisphere. There are exceptions such as Australia, Brazil, and New Zealand. The Brandt Line is an imaginary division that has provided a rough way of dividing all of the countries in the world in to the rich north and poor south. Many countries in the poor south have become more developed since the 1980’s, so many people now think that the Brandt line is no longer useful. The United Nations has also established its role in diminishing the divide between North and South through its Millennium Development Goals. These goals seek to eradicate extreme poverty and hunger; achieve universal primary education; promote gender equality and empower women; reduce child mortality; improve maternal health; combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases; ensure environmental sustainability; and develop a global partnership for development all by the year 2015. For example, some countries that are considered to be 'developing' have experienced rapid growth (especially in manufacturing and tertiary industries) in recent years. We call these countries the newly industrialized countries (NICs). Examples include China, Brazil, and Mexico. Why have NICs grown?
* a switch from agricultural to manufacturing and service jobs * a focus on exports and trade
* products are kept cheap and competitive by using cheap, well-disciplined workers * profits are invested in developing more industries and buying home produced goods - a multiplier effect * over time the workforce becomes better educated and more skilled * strong, stable government
Brazil, in particular, has been noted for its high levels of aid ($1 billion annually - ahead of many traditional donors) and the ability to use its own experiences to provide high levels of expertise and knowledge transfer. This has been described as a...
Bibliography: * http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brazil
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