UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE INTERNATIONAL EXAMINATIONS General Certificate of Education Advanced Subsidiary Level and Advanced Level
HISTORY Paper 3 International History, 1945–1991 Additional Materials: Answer Paper
October/November 2011 3 hours
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READ THESE INSTRUCTIONS FIRST Write your Centre number, candidate number and name on all the work you hand in. Write in dark blue or black pen. You may use a soft pencil for any rough working. Do not use staples, paper clips, highlighters, glue or correction fluid. Section A Answer Question 1. Section B Answer three questions. You must not answer both Question 3 and Question 4. At the end of the examination, fasten all your work securely together. All questions in this paper carry equal marks.
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DC (CB (NB)) 34094/7 © UCLES 2011
2 Section A: The Development of the United Nations, 1945–1991 You must answer Question 1. THE UNITED NATIONS AND THE BUILD UP TO THE SIX DAY WAR, 1967 1 Read the Sources and then answer the question. When answering Question 1, candidates are advised to pay particular attention to the interpretation and evaluation of the Sources both individually and as a group. Source A The presence of the United Nations Emergency Force (UNEF) in Egypt has kept tensions down. Yet Egyptian President Nasser has formally requested the withdrawal of UNEF from Egypt. It really makes a mockery of the peacekeeping work of the UN if, as soon as the tension rises, the UN is told to leave. Indeed the collapse of UNEF might well have repercussions on other UN peacekeeping forces and the credibility of the UN. Any decision to withdraw UNEF should be taken in the UN after full consultation with all countries involved; it should not be a unilateral decision. George Brown, British Foreign Secretary, speaking on 18 May 1967. Source B UNEF has discharged its responsibilities with remarkable effectiveness and distinction. It has been active for ten and a half years and that is a very long time for any country to have foreign troops, even under an international banner, on its soil. UN peacekeeping operations such as UNEF depend for their presence and effectiveness on the consent, cooperation and good will of the authorities in their area of deployment. When the Egyptian Government decided to move its troops up to the border, which it had a perfect right to do, the buffer function which UNEF had been performing was eliminated. Its continued presence was rendered useless, its position untenable, and its withdrawal became virtually inevitable. This was the case even before the official request for the withdrawal had been received by me. UNEF is a peacekeeping not an enforcement operation; a symbolic force of just 3400 men. I have given the order for the withdrawal of UNEF. The timing of the withdrawal of UNEF leaves much to be desired because of the prevailing tensions throughout the area. UN Secretary-General U Thant addressing the UN Security Council, 20 May 1967. Source C On 16 May 1967, UNEF’s Commander was asked by the Chief of Staff of Egypt’s armed forces to order an immediate withdrawal from the border. Thereupon, the UN Force began to suffer some harassment and was forced to abandon two of its observation posts. UN Secretary-General U Thant formally concluded the duties of the Force on 19 May. Egyptian forces gathered in large numbers on the frontier and on 22 May President Nasser announced a blockade of the Gulf of Aqaba. The crisis deepened and war broke out with a pre-emptive Israeli strike on 5 June. For his decision, U Thant was bitterly attacked from many sides. An article in the New York Times stated that the SecretaryGeneral had ‘used his international prestige with the objectivity of a spurned lover and the dynamism of a noodle’ and likened UNEF to ‘a fire brigade which vanishes from the scene as soon as the first flames appear.’ The British politician Sir Alec Douglas-Home...
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