Open Text - Based Assessment
Annual Examination-March 2014
1. Second Green Revolution
2. Medical Tourism in India
CENTRAL BOARD OF SECONDARY EDUCATION
Shiksha Kendra, 2, Community Centre, Preet Vihar, Delhi-110 092 India
OPEN TEXT MATERIAL
Economics (030) : Class-XI
1. Theme – “Second Green Revolution”
This case study begins by describing the importance of the agricultural sector in India. It provides a brief background to the rationale for undertaking the Green Revolution and the various kinds of changes that took place for the Green Revolution to be successful. Despite the successful rise in food grain production, agricultural growth rates in the ninth and tenth five year plans have not been up to expectations. Further, when compared to its neighbouring countries, India’s performance in the agricultural sector has been far from satisfactory. The time has come for a second Green Revolution. There are certain critical elements that are required for the Green Revolution to take place, both in terms of technology usage and issues to be considered. Further, India’s Food Processing Industry is at a fairly nascent stage and needs to develop rapidly in order to reduce wastage of food crops, fruits and vegetables, and help agricultural labour find new employment opportunities through which productivity can improve.
Historically, India has been an agrarian economy. When we mention the word agrarian – it implies agriculture and its allied activities that have dominated not only in the contribution to India’s GDP but have also been the highest employer of the labour force. Over the years, the decline in the population engaged in agriculture has not been as substantial as compared to its decline in share of India’s GDP. The Economic Survey of India (2012-13), states that the contribution of agriculture and its allied activities has been to only about 14.1% of India’s GDP at constant prices (2004-05) in 2011-12 but the sector continues to be important in the Indian economy as it provides over 58% of India’s employment as per 2001 census. The importance of agriculture is also based in the fact that it produces foodgrain to match the population of the country. Over the years, especially post independence, India’s population has seen a rapid increase. This can be seen from the table 1.
Population (in millions)
Source: Mission India: A Vision for Indian Youth
Prima facie it would seem to be a herculean task to match food grain requirements to the population needs of the country. This was particularly true in the 1960s when there were acute food shortages, especially when there was a long drought. This made India greatly dependent on wheat imported from the United States of America. The late G. Subramaniam, (who catapulted the Green Revolution from the political angle) and Dr. M. S. Swaminathan, (the agricultural scientist who handled the technological aspect), described India’s mid 1960 crisis as: ‘During…. That critical period of drought [1966-67], President Johnson, because of certain policies he had adopted, was releasing wheat only in driblets. At one point, we reached a stage where there were stocks for only two weeks and nothing else in the pipeline.’ The 1960s crisis made India’s leaders determined to take her out of this situation. They used India’s strengths to remove its dependence on international supplies and become self-sufficient in food grains. It was felt that by adopting modern methods of production and bringing India’s enterprising farmers together, there could be solutions to this problem. This effort became popularly known as the Green Revolution. The Green Revolution was launched to liberate India from what was called ‘ship to mouth existence’. During the period 1967 to 1978,...
Bibliography: Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations, 2008
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